Update 16 Mar 2019
Update 16 Oct 2018
There was a bug in pytracemalloc that prevents the PYTHONTRACEMALLOC environment variable from working. I have submitted a pull request and it is now merged. The PR fixed the bug in Python patches, added a testing script for the patches and improved the documentation.
My application is killed by the OOM killer. How do I find out why the application is taking up so much memory?
types | # objects | total size ======= | =========== | ============ dict | 1 | 280 B list | 1 | 192 B
It does not tell you the location in code that uses the memory. You could get a diff between snapshots, but it doesn’t really help much unless you place the diff code close to the problem source. In a complex application with many concurrent threads / greenlets running, this is almost impossible.
tracemalloc to the rescue
tracemalloc is a built-in module since Python 3.4 and it shows the traceback of memory allocation. With tracemalloc, you could just take a snapshot, print the traceback, and you’ll get the problem source.
Output of a snapshot:
[ Top 10 ] <frozen importlib._bootstrap>:716: size=4855 KiB, count=39328, average=126 B <frozen importlib._bootstrap>:284: size=521 KiB, count=3199, average=167 B /usr/lib/python3.4/collections/__init__.py:368: size=244 KiB, count=2315, average=108 B /usr/lib/python3.4/unittest/case.py:381: size=185 KiB, count=779, average=243 B /usr/lib/python3.4/unittest/case.py:402: size=154 KiB, count=378, average=416 B /usr/lib/python3.4/abc.py:133: size=88.7 KiB, count=347, average=262 B <frozen importlib._bootstrap>:1446: size=70.4 KiB, count=911, average=79 B <frozen importlib._bootstrap>:1454: size=52.0 KiB, count=25, average=2131 B <string>:5: size=49.7 KiB, count=148, average=344 B /usr/lib/python3.4/sysconfig.py:411: size=48.0 KiB, count=1, average=48.0 KiB
Traceback of an entry in the snapshot:
903 memory blocks: 870.1 KiB File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 716 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1036 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 934 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1068 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 619 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1581 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1614 File "/usr/lib/python3.4/doctest.py", line 101 import pdb File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 284 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 938 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1068 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 619 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1581 File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1614 File "/usr/lib/python3.4/test/support/__init__.py", line 1728 import doctest File "/usr/lib/python3.4/test/test_pickletools.py", line 21 support.run_doctest(pickletools) File "/usr/lib/python3.4/test/regrtest.py", line 1276 test_runner() File "/usr/lib/python3.4/test/regrtest.py", line 976 display_failure=not verbose) File "/usr/lib/python3.4/test/regrtest.py", line 761 match_tests=ns.match_tests) File "/usr/lib/python3.4/test/regrtest.py", line 1563 main() File "/usr/lib/python3.4/test/__main__.py", line 3 regrtest.main_in_temp_cwd() File "/usr/lib/python3.4/runpy.py", line 73 exec(code, run_globals) File "/usr/lib/python3.4/runpy.py", line 160 "__main__", fname, loader, pkg_name)
How about Python 2.7
It is not a stdlib module in Python 2.7. You’ll have to patch and compile Python 2.7 to use the 3rd party pytracemalloc module. It is easier than it sounds. I use Python 2.7.12 here, but you could use other Python versions.
sudo mkdir /opt/tracemalloc sudo chown $USER: /opt/tracemalloc cd /opt/tracemalloc wget http://www.python.org/ftp/python/2.7.12/Python-2.7.12.tgz git clone https://github.com/vstinner/pytracemalloc tar -xf Python-2.7.12.tgz cd Python-2.7.12 patch -p1 < ../pytracemalloc/patches/2.7.12/pep445.patch ./configure --enable-unicode=ucs4 --prefix=/opt/tracemalloc/py27 make install
Then we’ll create a virtualenv in the project directory. I use the system virtualenv here. Virtualenv installs pip for you so you don’t have to install pip manually.
cd ~/project virtualenv -p /opt/tracemalloc/py27/bin/python venv . venv/bin/activate
Don’t forget to install
pytracemalloc in the virtualenv.
cd /opt/tracemalloc/pytracemalloc python setup.py install
The environment is now ready. To use tracemalloc, in your code:
import tracemalloc tracemalloc.start(25) # 25 is the number of frames in traceback # allocate some memory x = range(10000) snapshot = tracemalloc.take_snapshot() # for line numbers top_stats = snapshot.statistics('lineno') print("[ Top 10 ]") for stat in top_stats[:10]: print(stat) # for traceback top_stats = snapshot.statistics('traceback') # pick the biggest memory block stat = top_stats print("%s memory blocks: %.1f KiB" % (stat.count, stat.size / 1024)) for line in stat.traceback.format(): print(line)
tracemalloc is a really nice tool to pinpoint the source of memory issues in a Python application. In Python 2.7, we can do it with pytracemalloc and a patched version of Python. Although patching and compiling Python sounds tedious, it may eventually save you time by skipping the guesswork required with conventional Python 2.7 memory profiling tools.